OPERATION AND USE - radar speed enforcement
Alternative: cross examination
Visual estimate of speed of Defendant's vehicle
Reinforce lack of certification re visual estimation
Distance of Defendant's vehicle at estimation of speed
Length of time of observation prior to speed estimation
Obstructions to vision
Time of day of citation
Light or dark
Weather date of stop
Rain, sleet, snow, blowing dirt/sand/debris
Number of vehicles in each lane and each direction of travel
Describe defendant's vehicle
Describe other vehicles in proximity to Defendant's vehicle
Audio (Speedgun 8, K-55, MR-7, MR99, HR-8, K-911)
Doppler signal strength
Detection of interference or other vehicles
TV or Radio test pattern
pitch vary with speed of target
volume vary with speed of target
Round off vs. lop off by device; i.e.: 49.4 or 49.6
Speed unknown; insufficient evidence
Identification of terms and effect on radar device:
Ghosting: weak signal or multiple bounce
Shadowing: beam bounce off reflective object (trunk) add patrol to D.
Low speed Combining: combine target & patrol in patrol window.
Multiple Bounce: i.e.. buildings in town
Panning: move stationary unit increase speed reading (stationary).
Batching: rapid acceleration/deceleration of radar car (moving mode). radar device unable to interpret
Cosine Error: angle of antenna to target (stationary unit or mode).
45 Degree: 100 mph = 70 mph
30 Degree: 100 mph = 86 mph Aim 500'_750" = 5 Degree
20 Degree: 100 mph = 93 mph Lift.
10 Degree: 100 mph = 98 mph
Scanning: move stationary unit increase speed reading
arc = 2_3 mph "Quick Draw"
push =10 mph
Same as panning
Target Bumping (Same as batching)
Feedback Effect: aim antenna at or across readout
window ==> high reading.
Interference: accidental false signal
Jamming: deliberate introduction of false signal
Own Speed Capture: Moving mode; own speed in patrol & target window.
Wedge from antenna - angle?
NO: CIGAR SHAPE
How identify target if unaware of beam shape and targets in zone
Log of checks personal diary or journal
Maximum distance with accuracy
Minimum distance with accuracy
Heater fan: false reading or shorten beam range
Power source: direct to car battery, cigarette lighter, portable battery pack.
Cigarette lighter = engine & all electrical interference
Ignition alternator AC alternating current interference
Shielded cable from power source to battery: hearsay
engine & electrical interference *Panel instruments in in patrol car.
Multiple cables twisted; antenna, power and remote control
Induction coil effect=increase speed reading
Damage to antenna: effect signal received
Damage to cords; exposed wires Inspection date of arrest
suck in antenna or diodes and amplify
Microwave transmitters; radio, CB, Amateur base stations, e.g. KBPI ROCKS THE ROCKIES
High voltage power lines: how does officer check effect
Hospital, doctor, dentist, chiropractors: X-ray
Service station, banks, business: Neon Fluorescent Light
Arc welding equipment
Effect of weather
Wind, rain, snow, blowing sand or debris
Buildings or reflective signs or burglar alarms
Around curve: bounce off power lines
Behind: bounce mirror
Area and traffic: size area and amount of traffic
position, mass, speed of other
Moving or stationary mode
Automatic lock: first speed exceed threshold entered
failure to release: improper speed for defendant.
Lock, automatic or manual
failure to release prior target reading - no relationship to defendant
inadvertent error (naturally)
"Out in front and nearest radar"
Target not always lead car: speed, position & mass
Experience at location
Number of times set up at specific location
Comparison patrol window to speedometer
Calibration of patrol car speedometer
hearsay unless mechanic testifies
Repair of vehicle transmission or radar device
re-certification - Hearsay
Beam absorption - inaccurate patrol window reading (reduced)
Loose gravel, sand, tall grass
Moving grass, trees or "stationary objects" increase patrol window.
IF UNAWARE OF LIMITATIONS OF RADAR, HOW DO YOU COMPENSATE?
Reason enforce prima facie speed
Conditions which rendered defendant's speed unreasonable & imprudent or dangerous
Have Officer SPECIFY EXACT CONDITIONS - probably can't